Soil Mechanics Contractor house building company รับสร้างบ้านโคราช It is necessary to study the properties and to improve the load-bearing effect on the soil. The allowable bearing capacity of a soil is the maximum value of pressure per area that each foundation will allow to be applied vertically or horizontally to the soil beneath the foundation in the absence of soil survey drilling.
Legislative requirements allow the use of average allowances to mitigate the risks at each soil layer. This value can be of various types because it is not drilled. While high-bearing soils are rarely a problem for construction รับสร้างบ้านราชบุรี, low-bearing soils require less form-fitting foundations. and affect the shape of the building
Density is an important factor in determining the bearing capacity of gravel soils. The Penetration Standard Test measures the density of soil, gravel, and the uniformity of certain types of clays blocking the well being drilled. The test records the number of times a pendulum impact can penetrate over a period of time. in the soil tested In some cases compaction is carried out by means of a press roller or sprinkled with water to provide adequate moisture in the soil. Will be able to increase the density of the ground.
Coarse sandy soils have less particulate spaces and are more stable for foundation than fine sandy or clay soils. Clay soils are usually unstable. It can shrink and swell a lot when the unstable soil moisture changes, which makes it impossible for the area to be built. unless a thorough foundation system design is used. But it is often costly. Soil shear resistance is a measure of the soil’s ability to resist displacement when an external force is applied. Most of the shear strength is due to the adhesion and friction forces in the soil. In a sloped construction site or on the side of an unengaged earth pit will tend to move in the lateral direction Soils with high adhesion strength, such as clay, have unbreakable binding strength and can move when there is no adhesion. While gravel and coarse sand soils have higher bearing strength. but need a device to prevent it from moving and usually has a low slip angle.
The groundwater level is below the water-absorbing soil layer. Some construction sites need to be aware of the seasonal rise and fall of groundwater levels. In the case of non-piled foundations, groundwater must be drained from the foundation to prevent water from reducing the bearing capacity of the soil. and to prevent water from leaking into the basement of the building Coarse sandy soil has the property to allow water to pass through. Better drainage than fine sand and will be harder to freeze
9. Map showing topography (Topography)
The topography map shows a blank image of the soil surface. which will affect the choice of building site or how to improve the area where the building will be built In the study of the influence of topography on building design, We can use a cut or a floor plan with contour lines
Contour lines are fictitious lines. to show different points where the line passes with the same elevation throughout the reference level (bench mark). Contour lines are contiguous lines. and do not intersect each other between the different lines Except in the case of a cliff cut down to the contour line will overlap the spoons in that area.
In the figure, the gap between the contour lines It indicates the change in the level of the area from one line to the next. on a topographic map or a plot of the distance between contour lines will be determined according to the scale of the layout The larger the area or the steeper the slope, the greater the slope. The difference in level between the two steep lines only became greater. For large areas or with high slopes The 20′ or 40′ (5 m or 10 m) contour line should be chosen for small areas or low slopes. The difference should be 1′, 2′ or 5′ (0.5 m or 1.0 m).
We can understand topography by reading the distances and shapes between contours.
ㆍThe contour lines that are farther apart represent a less steep slope.
ㆍ Uniform height line spacing Represents an area of constant sloping, evenly spaced elevation lines. Represents a very steep area.
ㆍA height line that curves out of the lower elevation line shows a ridge. As the elevation curve curves out, the higher elevation lines show valleys.
ㆍThe ground slope is more than 25%. Be careful of erosion and construction on this type of area is difficult.
ㆍA slope of more than 10% may still be carried out outdoors, but the cost of construction is high; a slope of 5 to 10% is suitable for simple outdoor activities. No difficulty in building buildings, the slope of the ground is less than 5%, very suitable for all kinds of outdoor activities. easy for building construction
ㆍSlope value (%) = [elevation (V) / azimuth (h)] × 100. The slope of the ground between the two contour lines is the relationship of the change in height to the total azimuth. between two contour lines
Renovation of the building construction site for beauty and economy as well as conservation of the environment. The project site should not interfere with or alter the appearance of the project site while taking advantage of the slope and weather conditions of the site site.
ㆍ Adjustment of the project site area and building construction It should not interfere with the existing natural drainage conditions in the construction site and in the surrounding area.
ㆍWhen modifying the shape of the ground Provide drainage systems for surface water and ground water.
ㆍ Try to keep the amount of foundation excavation andto adjust the area in the construction area which is mined and the amount to be filled is equal in the overall area.
ㆍ Avoid building buildings on steep slopes. There is a risk of erosion or slipping.
ㆍ Construction should not destroy animal habitats and natural water retention areas.
ㆍBe cautious in construction of buildings near the riverbank plains. or where the water may flood in the rainy season
ㆍLifting the building structure from the ground by pillars It will reduce interference to the original ground and natural ground.
ㆍMaking a balcony overhang or steps along the slope It was necessary to dig out the original soil and build a retaining wall.
ㆍThe construction of the structure into the sloping ground or partially placed underground It will help reduce the intensity of weather and wind as well as being able to keep warm in winter.
ㆍ Atmospheric temperature decreases with a change in altitude of approximately 1″F (0.56*C).
Every 400′ (122 m) of height
ㆍ Warm air rises
ㆍHeavier cold air falls to the ground below.
The weather conditions of the area surrounding the construction site will be influenced by the elevation of the area Characteristics, conditions, trends of land and water resources
ㆍThe sun’s radiation warms the southern slope. Occurs as a moderate temperature area
ㆍ Daytime winds that replace cool air above the ground can cool down to 10 F (5.6 C). Grass and ground cover will cool the air. by absorbing heat radiation and cooling off when plants tran
ㆍ Dry topsoil will increase the temperature.
ㆍThe light color of the face will reflect heat radiation. while the dark color of the face will absorb the heat radiation.
large bodies of water
ㆍAs a source of heat retention and mitigation of temperature changes
ㆍGenerally colder than the ground during the day and will be warmer than the ground at night. cause the wind to blow
ㆍIt is generally warmer than the ground during the winter and colder than the ground during the summer.
ㆍIn hot and dry areas Even small bodies of water are needed both sensuously and physically due to evaporation.
10. Plant Materials
Plant species will be beautiful at the same time. with the benefits of work energy conservation scoping sound barrier line and salvage soil erosion as well as making the natural building harmonious with the surrounding area
Factors for determining the selection and use of plant varieties for landscaping (landscaping) including
ㆍ Shape and structure of trees
ㆍThe firmness, texture and color of the leaves are seasonal.
ㆍ Growth rate
ㆍ Full height and sprawl
ㆍ Water requirements, sunlight, soil type and temperature of the plant species.
ㆍThe structure of the roots and the depth at which the roots will land
ㆍ Trees and other plants will adjust its own shape to the weather
ㆍDuring construction, efforts should be made to preserve the existing tonnes of woody plants and native plants that surround the building. These trees and plants should be kept at intervals equal to the radius of the canopy. This is because the root system of a tree can affect the foundation of a building and the pipe system that goes underground.
ㆍThe preservation of the plant is to make the soil retain moisture properties. have the right minerals allow air to penetrate as well as without extreme salinity
Grass and other ground covers
ㆍCan help reduce heat in the air By absorbing the sun’s radiation and causing cooling by plant transpiration.
ㆍ Help the soil at the embankment to be more stable and prevent erosion
ㆍ Increase the soil’s ability to allow air and water to penetrate.
ㆍ Ivy can reduce heat transmission through the wall. It blocks sunlight and cools the environment by dehydration.
Trees affect the environment of buildings in the following ways:
Provide shade (Providing Shade)
The amount of solar radiation that is blocked or filtered by a tree depends on the characteristics of each tree as follows.
ㆍ Growth direction towards the sun
ㆍThe distance between the tree and the building
ㆍ Shape, height and sprawl
ㆍ Density of leaf number and branch structure
ㆍ Plants can provide the most effective shade to a building or place in the morning from the southeast side. and in the afternoon from the southwest side of the building When the sun is low, it gives a long shade.
hanging trees facing south It will help shade during the day while the sun is high will give a short shade.
ㆍDeciduous trees provide shade and prevent glare in summer. And still let the sunlight through to keep warm in winter.
ㆍ Evergreens provide shade throughout the year. and help reduce the glare of snow in winter. Acts as a wind barrier, the evergreen tree acts as a good windproof wall. And helps to keep warm in the building in winter, the leaves of the trees reduce the dust that is sucked in with the wind.
ㆍ Trees can define the area and shape of outdoor spaces for various activities.
Build and cover the scenery
ㆍ Trees can frame beautiful scenery.
ㆍ Trees can be a filter for unwanted landscapes. and help prevent outsiders from seeing the inside
reduce the sound
ㆍPlanting of deciduous and evergreen trees together It will effectively reduce air noise. especially in areas with mounds
improve the weather
ㆍ Plants will capture particles and dust on the leaves. which will be washed into the ground when it rains
ㆍ Trees absorb and decompose polluted gases.
ㆍ Photosynthesis of trees helps digestion Eliminate odors and fumes
ㆍThe root structure of the tree helps the soil to adhere to each other stably. and increasing the accessibility of air and water to the soil as well as preventing soil erosion